Maybe I will shock, or even make people angry, maybe I won’t…Big deal! In the end, anyone can say anything, while social media rules the show, no?
I don’t know if these days history is important or even interesting! Today – I believe- the majority of young people are more interested in sex and money. After all money has become for some a vehicle for sex, and all this regardless of age or looks, or sexual orientation: him and her, him and him, her and her, one with many, me with myself. Let’s not even mention zoophilia which today more than ever is still being practiced.
Who still cares about the past? The past is “uncertain”, actually does it even matter anymore? The moment, yes, this is the only certainty.
If young ones are still interested in history, I invite them to read this: HISTORY – I hope- is alive and at the same time TRUE. Writing is the only thing that lasts in the end, and even if it is subjective, the archives still remain.
Because I am in my “third youth” I am interested in these things I would like to share them. Why? Because history – for me- is second nature, even if my profession is that of a geologist. I observe how history itself transforms throughout “time, before history”. What I am afraid of is that history will repeat itself, and that in so doing Romania will be in peril. (https://drsilvestru.wordpress.com/2016/06/27/2016-se-schimba-sau-nu-totul/)
I will try to be succinct and only touch upon some important aspects of events that happened in Romania between 1918 to 1920.
In the year 1918, in Vienna, emperor Karl I unsuccessfully tried to remain in power, and on the 11th of November, he had to retreat in exile.1 Meanwhile, on the 30th of October 1918, the first president elect- Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk- proclaimed the for the first time the Republic of Czechoslovakia.2
In Vienna, at the end of October – beginning of November (1918), a sort of revolution took place, which rapidly transformed into vandalism.3 Fortunately, the Transylvanian army of Romania (who were stationed in the Franz Ferdinand barracks) immediately intervened and restored order. During the next four years, Transylvanian Romanians in the Austro-Hungarian army were on the front in Galicia (Poland), and the emperor ordered that the Transylvanians (an army numbering between 30 to 40 thousand soldiers) regroup and guard Vienna. Immediately after the emperor’s abdication, the first chancellor Karl Renner created a German-Austrian “unification” (12th of November 1918) and refused to recognize Czechoslovakia. As a result of this union, now both the Germans and the Austrians tried stop the the newly formed Republic of Czechoslovakia and again, the Transylvanian military re-established order and president Masaryk remained in power. A year later, the first Austrian Republic – now separated from Germany- was born and existed until the year 1938 when Germany annexed Austria (Anschluss).
It is thus clear the Transylvanian army of Romania kept order when Austro-Hungary, Germany, and Russia were undergoing a profound crisis, when if fact empires were unravelling, and the Bolshevik revolution was in full swing.
The first mention of the name “Ardeal” appeared in 960 CE through a Rabi from Cordoba. “Ardealul” in Romanian, and “Erdely” in the Hungarian language are very close to each other (as far as pronunciation) and that is why I prefer to refer to this region as Transylvania. This of course, only in the concrete historical context.4
Transylvania also wanted to break free from Austro-Hungary. Hungary became a republic in the year 1918 (25th of September) and elected Mihály Károlyi as its first socialist prime-minister.5 Oszkár Jász – a minister without portfolio for the Hungarian nationalities, a Jew that changed his name from ”Jakubovits” to ”Jászi” (and who also became a Franc-mason in 1908)- went to Arad (Romania) on the 13th-14th of November 1918, to do everything in his power to keep Hungary “whole”.6 After a two hour encounter, during which apparently Romanian minister Iuliu Maniu did not speak a single word, the same Maniu said simply: ”teljes elszokodas ”, meaning “total separation”. Two weeks later, on the 1st of December 1918, Transylvania joined the Kingdom of Romania.7,8 An interesting note is that although Iuliu Maniu was a very important figure throughout that period, he never signed anything official during the ratification process of the unification between Transylvania and Romania. It is possible that Maniu was reserved about this unconditional unification, preferring instead something closer to federalization (akin the one in America). But that was not meant to be.
After the First World War, in order for Romania to remain whole, the prime minister Ion I. C. Brătianu went to Paris and fiercely negotiated for this cause.9 Most likely though, Queen Mary of Romania (who also reached Paris on the 6th of March 1919) was the one that sealed the fate of Great Romania. Mary was an elegant, beautiful, intelligent woman, but her most important attribute was the she knew how to navigate her way amongst versed and cunning politicians.10
Only four days before going to Paris, Queen Mary met a special man, a Canadian by the name of Joe Boyle. Joe remained loyal to their secret friendship for the rest of his life.
It is remarkable that the same Joe was able to retrieve a part of the Romanian thesaurus (treasury), lost when the Russian emperor was captured by the Bolsheviks.11 The fact that the main part of the Romanian thesaurus remained in Russia, a historical fact which is well documented, was one of the main reasons for the Bolsheviks winning against the Mensheviks and Lenin becoming the prime-secretary of the Union of the Russian Soviets (later to be known as The Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics).
On the 21st of March 1919 Hungary became the Hungarian Soviet Republic and the Hungarian Social Party (formed through the fusion between the Social Democratic Party and the Communists) became the predominant political formation in the country. Meanwhile the Bolsheviks – through Lenin- decided to invade Romania as Bela Kun – the Hungarian Foreign Affairs Commissary- and the Hungarian army were advancing in Transylvania.12 The plan was that the Russians would invade Moldova, while the Bulgarians and the Serbs would invade Muntenia (a region in the South of Romania historically known as Wallachia). Thus Romanian and its Latin origins would have been all but eradicated.13
On the 16th of April 1919 in Beius (Transylvania) Hungarians (apparently ones local to the area) killed 3 Romanian leaders (by burring them alive!) and thus the Hungarian army reached all the way to Huedin. King Ferdinand of Romania engaged his army and counter-attacked this invasion, first on the front close to the river Tisa, and later in August 1919, carving path for the Romanian army all the way to Budapest.14 Bela Kun ran to Moscow, where he remained until 1930 when Stalin was killed. The Romanian army stayed in Budapest until March of 1920 when the Hungarians elected a democratic government through Miklós Horthy and as a result from 1924, Hungary became fascist or “horthyst”. Upon their return home, Romanians took many war spoils, which in a ll fairness was to be expected, knowing the Bela Kun and the Hungarian army had previously invaded Transylvania.
I remember the beautifully made movie Sunshine (1992), in which the Hungarian director István Szabó only mentions that in the year 1919 “with the support of other nations” Hungarians were rid of the Bolsheviks. In reality only Romanian fought and won against the Bolsheviks, while Hungarians stayed and waited.15
The Romanian Army marches on the streets of Budapest – 4th of April 191916
In the year 1920, through the Treaty of Trianon, Transylvania remained and became a permanent part of Great Romania.17 In Transylavnia and Basarbia (today’s Republic of Moldova), immediately after 1920 (and even during the Communist era), the majority of bigger cities had prefects and mayors from “the kingdom”, not local to the regions, fact which (in my opinion) had a negative “balkanizing” impact. By contrast, before this period, in the times of the Austrian (and British) empires, governance was well crafted and thus more effective.
Even though I have been living outside of Romania for the better part of 16 years, being born in Aiud (Transylvania) I still have many Hungarian friends. I have been and hope to remain good friends with Hungarians, because for me Transylvania is unique and its people are truly complementary regardless of nationalities, phenomena which I like to call “Transylvanism”. That said I also believe it is important to state the truth and present historical facts, as we continue this journey TOGETHER.